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Common Layouts (HDD) -
Raw, Stripes, & Mirrors -
Calculation Walkthrough -
ZFS RAID is not like normal RAID. Its on-disk structure is far more complex than that of a normal RAID implementation. This complexity is driven by the wide array of data protection features ZFS offers. Because its on-disk structure is so complex, predicting how much usable capacity you'll get from a set of hard disks given a vdev layout is surprisingly difficult. There are layers of overhead that need to be understood and accounted for to get a reasonably accurate estimate. I've found that the best way to get my head wrapped around ZFS allocation overhead is to step through an example.
We'll start by picking a less-than-ideal RAIDZ vdev layout so we can see the impact of all the various forms of ZFS overhead. Once we understand RAIDZ, understanding mirrored and striped vdevs will be simple. We'll use 14x 18TB drives in two 7-wide RAIDZ2 (7wZ2) vdevs. It will generally be easier for us to work in bytes so we don't have to worry about conversion between TB and TiB.
Starting with the capacity of the individual drives, we'll subtract the size of the swap partition. The swap partition acts as an extension of the system's physical memory pool. If a running process needs more memory than is currently available, the system can unload some of its in-memory data onto the swap space. By default, TrueNAS CORE creates a 2GiB swap partition on every disk in the data pool. Other distributions may create a large or smaller swap partition or might not create one at all.
18 * 1000^4 - 2 * 1024^3 = 17997852516352 bytes
Next, we want to account for reserved sectors at the start of the disk. The layout and size of these reserved sectors will depend on your operating system and partition scheme, but we'll use FreeBSD and GPT for this example because that is what's used by TrueNAS CORE and Enterprise. We can check sector alignment by running
root@truenas[~]# gpart list da1
Geom name: da1
1. Name: da1p1
Mediasize: 2147483648 (2.0G)
2. Name: da1p2
Mediasize: 17997852430336 (16T)
1. Name: da1
Mediasize: 18000000000000 (16T)
We'll first note that the sector size used on this drive is 512 bytes. Also note that the first logical block on this disk is actually sector 40; that means we're losing
17997852516352 - 20480 - 65536 = 17997852430336 bytes
Before ZFS does anything with this partition, it rounds its size down to align with a 256KiB block. This rounded-down size is referred to as the
floor(17997852430336 / (256 * 1024)) * 256 * 1024 = 17997852311552 bytes
Inside the physical ZFS volume, we need to account for the special labels added to each disk. ZFS creates 4 copies of a 256KiB vdev label on each disk (2 at the start of the ZFS partition and 2 at the end) plus a 3.5MiB embedded boot loader region. Details on the function of the vdev labels can be found here and details on how the labels are sized and arranged can be found here and in the sections just below this (lines 541 and 548). We subtract this 4.5MiB (
17997852311552 - 4 * 262144 - 3670016 = 17997847592960 bytes
Next up, we need to calculate the allocation size or "
17997847592960 * 7 = 125984933150720 bytes
That's about 114.58 TiB. ZFS takes this chunk of storage represented by the allocation size and breaks it until smaller, uniformly-sized buckets called "metaslabs". ZFS creates these metaslabs because they're much more manageable than the full vdev size when tracking used and available space via spacemaps. The size of the metaslabs are primarily controlled by the metaslab shift or "
On the other hand, the "cutoff" for going from
Once we have the value of
2 ^ 34 = 17179869184 bytes
floor(125984933150720 / 17179869184) = 7333
This gives us 7,333 metaslabs per vdevs. We can check our progress so far on an actual ZFS system by using the zdb command provided by ZFS. We can check vdev asize and the metaslab shift value by running
root@truenas[~]# zdb -U /data/zfs/zpool.cache -C tank
... (output truncated) ...
root@truenas[~]# zdb -U /data/zfs/zpool.cache -m tank
vdev 0 ms_unflushed_phys object 270
metaslabs 7333 offset spacemap free
--------------- ------------------- --------------- ------------
metaslab 0 offset 0 spacemap 274 free 16.0G
space map object 274:
smp_length = 0x18
smp_alloc = 0x12000
metaslab 1 offset 400000000 spacemap 273 free 16.0G
space map object 273:
smp_length = 0x18
smp_alloc = 0x21000
... (output truncated) ...
ZFS reserves one metaslab per "normal class" vdev (meaning not from cache vdevs, etc) for an "embedded SLOG", but this apparently is not factored in to capacity calculations. More info on that here.
To calculate useful space in our vdev, we multiply the metaslab size by the metaslab count. This means that space within the ZFS partition but not covered by one of the metaslabs isn't useful to us and is effectively lost. In theory, by using a smaller
17179869184 * 7333 = 125979980726272 bytes
That's about 114.58 TiB of useful space per vdev. If we multiply that by the quantity of vdevs, we get the ZFS pool size:
125979980726272 * 2 = 251959961452544 bytes
We can confirm this by running
root@truenas[~]# zpool list -p -o name,size,alloc,free tank
NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE
tank 251959961452544 1437696 251959960014848
Note that the zpool SIZE value matches what we calculated above. We're going to set this number aside for now and calculate RAIDZ parity and padding. Before we proceed, it will be helpful to review a few ZFS basics including
Hard disks and SSDs divide their space into tiny logical storage buckets called "sectors". A sector is usually 4KiB but could be 512 bytes on older hard drives or 8KiB on some SSDs. A sector represents the smallest read or write a disk can do in a single operation. ZFS tracks disks' sector size as the "
In RAIDZ, the smallest useful write we can make is
To avoid this, ZFS will pad out all writes to RAIDZ vdevs so they're an even multiple of this
Unlike traditional RAID5 and RAID6 implementations, ZFS supports partial-stripe writes. This has a number of important advantages but also presents some implications for space calculation that we'll need to consider. Supporting partial stripe writes means that in our 7wZ2 vdev example, we can support a write of 12 total sectors even though 12 is not an even multiple of our stripe width (7). 12 is evenly divisible by
The last ZFS concept we need to understand here is the
You can read more about ZFS' handling of partial stripe writes and block padding in this article by Matt Ahrens.
Getting back to our capacity example, we have the minimum sector count already calculated above at
128 * 1024 / 4096 = 32 sectors
Our stripe width is 7 disks, so we can figure out how many stripes this 128KiB write will take. Remember, we need 2 parity sectors per stripe, so we divide the 32 sectors by 5 because that's the number of data sectors per stripe:
32 / (7-2) = 6.4
We can visualize how this might look on the disks (P represents a parity sectors, D represents a data sectors):
As mentioned above, that partial 0.4 stripe also gets 2 parity sectors, so we have 7 stripes of parity data at 2 parity sectors per stripe, or 14 total parity sectors. We now have 32 data sectors, 14 parity sectors, adding those, we get 46 total sectors for this data block. 46 is not an even multiple of our minimum sector count (3), so we need to add 2 padding sectors. This brings our total sector count to 48: 32 data sectors, 14 parity sectors, and 2 padding sectors.
With the padding sectors included, this is what the full 128KiB block might look like on disk. I've drawn two blocks so you can see how alignment of the second block gets shifted a bit to accommodate the partial stripe we've written. The X's represent the padding sectors.
This probably looks kind of weird because we have one parity sector at the start of the second block just hanging out by itself, but even though it's not on the same exact row as the data it's protecting, it's still providing that protection. ZFS knows where that parity data is written so it doesn't really matter what LBA it gets written to, as long as it's on the correct disk.
We can calculate a data storage efficiency ratio by dividing our 32 data sectors by the 48 total sectors it takes to store them on disk with this particular vdev layout.
32 / 48 = 0.66667
ZFS uses something similar to this ratio when allocating space but in order to simplify calculations and avoid multiplication overflows and other weird stuff it tracks this ratio as a fraction of 512. In other words, to more accurately represent how ZFS "sees" the on-disk space, we need to convert the 32/48 fraction to the nearest fraction of 512. We'll need to round down to get a whole number in the numerator (the top part of the fraction). To do this, we calculate:
floor(0.66667 * 512) / 512 = 0.666015625 = 341/512
This 341/512 fraction is called the
251959961452544 * 0.666015625 = 167809271201792 bytes
The last thing we need to account for is SPA slop space. ZFS reserves the last little bit of pool capacity "to ensure the pool doesn't run completely out of space due to unaccounted changes (e.g. to the MOS)". Normally this is 1/32 of the usable pool capacity with a minimum value of 128MiB. OpenZFS 2.0.7 also introduced a maximum limit to slop space of 128GiB (this is good; slop space used to be HUGE on large pools). You can read about SPA slop space reservation here.
For our example pool, slop space would be...
167809271201792 * 1/32 = 5244039725056 bytes
That's 4.77 TiB reserved... again, a TON of space. If we're running OpenZFS 2.0.7 or later, we'll use 128 GiB instead:
167809271201792 - 128 * 1024^3 = 167671832248320 bytes = 156156.5625 GiB = 152.4966 TiB
And there we have it! This is the total usable capacity of a pool of 14x 18TB disks configured in 2x 7wZ2. We can confirm the calculations using
root@truenas[~]# zfs list -p tank
NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT
tank 1080288 167671831168032 196416 /mnt/tank
As with the
167671831168032 + 1080288 = 167671832248320 bytes = 156156.5625 GiB = 152.4966 TiB
By adding the USED and AVAIL values, we can confirm that our calculation is accurate.
Mirrored vdevs work in a similar way but the vdev
This example used VirtualBox with virtual 18TB disks that hold exactly 18,000,000,000,000 bytes. Real disks won't have such an exact physical capacity; the 8TB disks in my TrueNAS system hold 8,001,563,222,016 bytes. If you run through these calculations on a real system with physical disks, I recommend checking the exact disk and partition capacity using
It's worth noting that none of these calculations factor in any data compression. The effect of compression on storage capacity is almost impossible to predict without running your data through the compression algorithm you intend to use. At iX, we typically see between 1.2:1 and 1.6:1 reduction assuming the data is compressible in the first place.
We're also ignoring the effect that variable block sizes will have on functional pool capacity. We used a 128 KiB block because that's the ZFS default and what it uses for available capacity calculations, but (as discussed above) ZFS may use a different block size for different data. A different block size will change the ratio of data sectors to parity+padding sectors so overall storage efficiency might change. The calculator above includes the ability to set a recordsize value and calculate capacity based on a pool full of blocks that size. You can experiment with different recordsize values to see its effects on efficiency. Changing a dataset's recordsize value will have effects on performance as well, so read up on it before tinkering. You can find a good high-level discussion of recordsize tuning here, a more detailed technical discussion here, and a great generalized workload tuning guide here on the OpenZFS docs page.
Please feel free to get in touch with questions or if you spot any errors! firstname.lastname@example.org
If you're interested in how the pool annual failure rate values are derived, I have a write-up on that here.
Calculation Values -
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